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Stage 1 Lesson 1 

〜Basic Driving Information〜

Driving is a process that consists of performing the actions of identification, judgement, and execution.
The three keys to driving are: identification, judgement and execution. Among them, execution is especially important and deeply related to causes of an accident.

1. Types of Signals and Their Meanings

It is important for drivers not to be selfish, but to have a give-and-take spirit, to consider others, and respect pedestrians and/or other drivers. 
Giving consideration not to interfere with other traffic or to ensure the safety of others results in following traffic regulations.
Drivers are required to obtain not only driving knowledge and skill, but also good morals as a member of society.
If a driver obeys the traffic regulations, he or she might not cause a traffic accident, even if he or she does not consider others' situations.
Drivers must not think only of their own convenience, but rather must not disturb people living alongside the road by making unnecessary noise. 
Automotive emissions contain harmful gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, and are a source of air pollution.
The driver of the car must check the safety of the rear etc. when the passenger opens the door or gets out of the car.
The driver is not responsible for the accident caused by the door opened carelessly by the passenger.
Children under the age of 12 must use a child seat when riding in a standard-sized car, except in unavoidable cases such as illness.
It is safer to put a child seat on the rear seat than on the front seat when carrying preschool children.
If it is unavoidable to install the child seat on the front passenger seat, move the seat all the way forward and fix it facing backwards.
The use of a child seat is also obligatory when transporting a child to a hospital for first aid.
Children under the age of 6 are exempted from using a child seat when the vehicle is equipped with airbags.
When using a childseat in a vehicle equipped with airbags, the child seat should be used in the backseats.
In the event of a traffic violation or traffic accident, you may be subject to the criminal and civil obligations, but not to the administrative obligations.
Preschool children are exempted from using a child seat when riding on a bus or taxi.

2. Prohibition on Driving When Intoxicated

You can drink and drive as long as you consider yourself "not drunk".
One must not offer or recommend alcohol to someone who may drive later.

3. Obeying Traffic Laws

Driving in accordance with traffic regulations helps protect the lives of others people and your own life too.
The goal of the Road Traffic Law are to prevent danger on the nation's roads, to ensure traffic safety, and to promote the smooth movement of traffic, but not to prevent traffic pollution.
A lot of vehicles and people use roads, so even if one single driver or pedestrian travels as he or she likes, traffic may become confused and accidents may occur.

4. Preparing for Driving

When taking a drive, drivers can make the best use of time by driving as necessary according to conditions rather than making a detailed plan. 
 When driving a long distance, it is necessary to make a driving plan in advance, but if it is a short distance, there is no particular need to make a plan.
When driving for long periods of time, stop and take a break every four hours.
If travel planes put undue strain on the driver or vehicle, the driver's care may be lacking, his or her attention may be reduced, and he or she may tend to drive too fast without noticing. Driver should allow for leeway when making travel plans.
Fatigue and its effects while driving are shown most strongly in the eyes; incidences of failing to notice something or mistaking what one sees become more frequent and one's sense of judgement deteriorates.
Driving while one is feeling uneasy, is extremely tired, or is in poor physical condition can lead to accidents. Drivers should not drive in these circumstances. 
It is not true that all medicines are unsuitable for one who intends to drive, but it is best not to drive after taking medicine that causes drowsiness.
A driver may select any type of clothing for driving as long as he or she is not naked.
I rode a motorcycle while wearing a construction helmet.
When driving a two-wheeled vehicle in the summer, the driver should wear cool garments such as short-sleeved shirts and shorts. 
One may not drive a vehicle wearing sandals with no back strap or high-heeled shoes.
Correct driving posture enables reliable driving performance and reduces fatigue, so drivers should not relax their driving posture by tilting their body or driving with their elbow resting on the window edge. 
A driver must wear a seatbelt and make sure that passengers wear one too, because seatbelts can substantially reduce the risk of injuries in the event of a traffic accident. 
Seatbelts can help a driver be in a suitable driving posture and lessen the driver's fatigue during driving.
Passengers in the backseat are not required to wear seat belts.
Passengers don’t have to wear seat belts if the car is equipped with airbags.
Wearing a seat belt is compulsory even during pregnancy.
Seatbelts do not have to be worn when there is an unavoidable reason such as injury, illness, or pregnancy.
Drivers are exempt from wearing seatbelts when reversing a vehicle.
Lap belts of a seatbelt should be tightly wrapped around a driver's pelvis, because if wrapped around the abdomen, significant pressure that may be dangerous may be applied to the abdomen in the event of an accident.
When wearing the seat belt, shoulder straps should not pass across the neck and the lap belts should wrap around your abdomen.
A vehicle inspection certificate should be kept at home so as not to lose it. 
The motor vehicle inspection certificate and a compulsory automobile liability insurance form (including a mutual relief system insurance certificate) are important documents, so in order to prevent loss or theft when driving one's automobile, it is best to store them carefully in one's home separately.
A driver must not, in principle, use a mobile phone while driving.
Using a mobile phone or looking at the screen of a car nagivation system while driving is distracting and can lead to an accident, so drivers must not engage in these activities. 
While driving, it is good for a driver to take a relaxed posture looking straight ahead and leaning lightly against the back of the seat.
When driving a four-wheeled vehicle, it is good to lean forward a little so that it is easier to drive.
It is advisable for a driver to adjust his or her seat to a position where their knees shall be fully stretched when depressing the clutch pedal.
The seat back of a four-wheeled vehicle should be adjusted so that the elbows are fully extended when the steering wheel is held in both hands.
In correct driving posture, the knees are slightly bent when depressing the clutch pedal and the elbows are slightly bent when holding the steering wheel. 
When riding a large-size or regular motorcycle, drivers should place the arch of their foot on the step, keep the soles of their feet roughly flat, point their toes straight forward, and press their knees against the fuel tank. 
When choosing a motorcycle, if you can walk the vehicle through a full figure of eight, it can be said to be a model that suits your body.
If the driver intends to ride double on a large-size or regular motorcycle, the driver should choose a motorcycle with a backseat that is wide enough for carrying a passenger. 
When choosing a two-wheeled vehicle, one must select a model appropriate for his or her body size. Even if he or she is confident of his or her strength, it is dangerous to suddenly try to ride a large vehicle. 
In a place where there are many traffic, it is better to get off the car from the right doors as much as possible. 
When getting off a vehicle, it is best to open a door slightly and stop, check safety and then open as wide as you need.
Before getting in a vehicle, check surroundings of the vehicle including under the vehicle.

This is the end of this section.

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